By David Savage 

Tribune News Service

WASHINGTON– The sudden death of Justice Antonin Scalia will have an immediate effect on numerous cases now pending before the court, including several that were expected to split along ideological or political lines with 5-4 votes. Now instead, some of those votes could deadlock 4-4, meaning a lower court’s last ruling on the issue will stand. Here are some of the key cases this term and what might happen.

UNION FEES

Friedrichs vs. California Teachers Association 

The court was set to decide whether to overrule a 1977 decision and prohibit unions from charging mandatory fees to non-members, including school teachers. If the court splits 4-4, the deadlock will keep in place laws in California and 22 other states that permit these mandatory fees to cover the cost of collective bargaining. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION Fisher vs. University of Texas The court was set to rule on whether a university can give an edge in admissions to black and Latino students. Because Justice Elena Kagan was already recused from the case, the passing of Justice Scalia could still give the court’s conservatives an edge with a 4-3 vote to cut back on college affirmative action. 

ABORTION

Whole Woman’s Health vs. Hellerstedt 

The court in early March is set to hear a case testing whether conservative states such as Texas can adopt stringent medical regulations that would force many abortion clinics to close down. A U.S. appeals court upheld the state’s regulations, but then the justices blocked them from taking effect by a 5-4, with Justice Anthony Kennedy in the majority and Scalia in dissent. If Kennedy joins with the four liberals, the court could strike down the Texas regulations by a 5-3 vote. But if he joins with the conservatives to rule for Texas, the court would be split 4-4 and unable to issue a ruling. 

RELIGIOUS LIBERTY

Zubik vs. Burwell 

The court has agreed to decide whether Catholic charities and other religiously affiliated groups may opt out of providing employees certain contraceptives, including what they believe are “abortion inducing” drugs. This was seen as major test of religious liberty. But without Scalia, the court may be split 4-4 and unable to rule. Most courts across the nation have ruled for the Obama administration and upheld the “contraceptive mandate” on the grounds that the religious entities are not required to pay for the disputed drugs.

ELECTION DISTRICTS

Evenwel vs. Abbott 

The court is considering a case that could shift how voting districts are drawn. Conservative challengers said the current system which relies on counting all people discriminates in favor of areas that have a large percentage of immigrants, children, prisoners and others who are not citizens or not eligible to vote. Without Scalia, the conservative lawyers who brought the case are unlikely to prevail. 

IMMIGRATION 

United States vs. Texas 

The court in April planned to hear the Obama administration’s appeal of a Texas judge’s order that blocked the president’s executive action authorizing deportation relief and work permits for more than four million immigrants who are living here illegally. If Justice Kennedy were to join with the court’s four liberals, they could set aside the judge’s order and allow Obama’s plan to take effect in his final months in office. However, if Kennedy votes with the three remaining conservatives to say Obama’s order was illegal, the court would be deadlocked, thereby keeping the judge’s order in place and blocking Obama’s program from taking effect.